Application in plant growing
The humic preparation use for seed and vegetative plant treatment positively influences the yield of all agricultural, fruit and berry, vegetable, technical and ornamental crops. It increases plant resistance against unfavorable external environment factors: drought, frosts, plant vulnerability to diseases and pests. The humic preparation use saves the costs for the pesticide and mineral fertilizer purchase due to the better digestibility of the soil nutrients by plants. Humateas also deactivate heavy metals and radionuclides due to their bonding in the form of water-insoluble salts.
The fertilizer efficiency is determined by the treatment terms and means, plant species and environmental situation. Its action on the growth processes and plant development is the most evident at the pre-sowing seed and vegetative plant treatment at the earlier development stages.
The humate influence on the soil content and structure is also inestimable. Their application prevents soil degradation, provides for the gradual humus accumulation and recovery in the soil and regenerates the fertility of emaciated lands. Besides, the humates positively influence the soil structure improving its gas impermeability and humidity indicators decreasing the soil erosion. The joint use of humates and mineral fertilizers and plant protection products allows reducing mineral fertilizers consumption by 30-40%, pesticides – by 20-30% which significantly decreases the man-induced load on the environment.
In addition to a significant enhancement in the environmental state of treated lands, the humate use provides for a clear improvement of the weather and climate stability alongside with the yield of the cultivated plants and vegetation. The work solution concentration for the soil recultivation – 0.1-0.2 %. To prepare it, dilute 150 ml of the concentrate in 10 l of water. The terms for addition – autumn period, the work solution spending is 100-150 l per hectare.
Humates should be applied on:
1) alkaline soils with a low ferrum content;
2) sandy and sandy loam soils with a low organic fertilizer (humus) level;
3) acid, podzolic soils with a low organic fertilizer (humus) level along with lime application;
4) salinized soils (internal solonchak);
5) limestone soils.
At the humate systematic use the soil structure becomes better as well as its buffer and ion-exchanged properties do, soil microorganism become more active.
Humates for plants
A high efficiency is observed when humate application is combined with agricultural crop pre-sowing seed treatment at vegetative plant spraying. The fertilization in the vegetation period is performed by means of plant watering or spraying. The interchange of watering and spraying has the greatest positive effect. The plants are sprayed early in the morning or in the evening at a dry windless weather equally moistening the leaves. The work solution should be prepared immediately before its application.
The humate treatment of agricultural vegetative plants can be combined with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides. There are no limitations for humate mixing with nitrogen (except for calcium nitrate), potassium and organic fertilizers. However, it is not recommended to simultaneously add phosphorous fertilizers and humates due to occurrence of insoluble compounds. They are added separately. As for the chemical pesticides, in case of any doubt concerning the compatibility of certain pesticides with humic products, before preparing a tank mixture a small amount of the preparation is mixed with humate in a small tank and if there is no precipitation, one can prepare the tank mixture. The humate foliar application on vegetative plants together with mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides has one more advantage among the others: it reduces poisonous substance and nitrate accumulation in plants and ready crop products.
A general humic preparation application procedure includes obligatory pre-sowing seed treatment. This method is very important as this is the stage when the factors for a good yield are formed. Three options are possible:
1) pre-sowing incrustation using only humate;
2) seed dressing in the combination “dresser and humate”;
3) seed incrustation with the help of cellulose glue (EPOS, EPOL, EPOK, water sorbent, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), dresser and humate.
In terms of the first option: 80-100 ml of a humate concentrate are diluted in 10 l of water and the prepared work solution is then used for treating 1 ton of seeds.
In case of the second and third options a necessary volume of a humate concentrate is diluted in the prepared tank mixtures in compliance with the aforementioned method. Further, the standard treatment is conducted.
The work solution consumption rate for cereal and grain legume crops – 10 liters per a ton of seeds. Under certain conditions, including the dressing of a number of small-seeded crops, one prepares 15 or 20 liters (depending on the crop kind) of the work solution. To treat the seeds with humates, one can use serial machines PS-10, PS-10A, APZ-10, KP-10A, Mobitoks-Super, Mobitoks-Tsiklomat.
The cereal crops are subject to foliage spraying of seeds in the vegetation period:
— wheat (winter and summer), rye, barley, oats – twofold and threefold spaying at the phase of 4-5 leaves emergence (for 2-3 weeks before the “winter” weather commencement in case of winter crops) in the tillering stage – booting start and in the paniculation stage – milky stage start;
– millet and sorghum – in the tillering stage and in the heading stage (head);
– buckwheat – in the booting stage and in 15-20 days after previous treatment;
– grain maize: in the phase of three or five leaves and in the heading stage – blossoming.
To prepare the spraying work solution, 85-100 ml of the concentrate are diluted in 100 liters of water. Work solution consumption rate – 300 l per hectare.
Humate preparations inhibit or prevent the development of a number of cereal crops, maize. It is recommended to use humates in tank mixtures with plant protection means which will provide for the chemical stress relieving and avoid growth suspension. The spraying is conducted with common serial spray machines (ON-40001, OPSh-15, OPSh 15-03, POU, OVN-14, etc.) and with manual backpack sprayers.
Attention! Humate solutions with the concentration more than 0.1% (at pre-sowing seed treatment) and more than 0.01% (at spraying on vegetation and washing) are inhibiting and negatively influence plant growth and development. That is why the work solution shall strictly keep the concentration of active ingredients.
Vegetable crops and potato.
All vegetable crops (cabbage, tomato, cucumber, carrot, beet-root, onion, pepper, eggplant, etc.) have a good response to the pre-sowing treatment of their seeds by a humate work solution with the concentration of 0.01-0.05%. To make a work solution for soaking, 80-100 ml of the humate concentrate are diluted in 10 liters of water. Seed soaking duration – 10-15 hours (but not longer than a day) one day before sowing.
A significant gain in the vegetable crop yield is received at the treatment of vegetative plants with the humate work solutions, the concentration equal to 0.001-0.008%. At this, the humate consumption depends on the plant nature. Fennel, parsley, lettuce, onion, radish and small radish, dock require a small amount of nutrients. In this cases it is enough to conduct two or three treatment courses per vegetation. Cucumbers and tomatoes relate to the plants with the average consumption of nutrients. Number of treatment courses: no less than three or four per vegetation. All kinds of cabbage, carrot, beet root, marrow squash require a lot of nutrients. That is why it is necessary to conduct at least four treatment courses with the help of humate. A number of vegetable crops is grown using seeds and transplanting. In case of transplanted crops, it is better to conduct the first humate treatment in two-three days after bedding-out. Further treatment courses are conducted every 15-20 days. In case of sown crops, the first humate treatment is conducted in the stage of three-four real leaves, further treatment – in the booting period, when blossoming starts and during fruit bearing.
In the hothouse one should conduct at least four-five humate treatment courses finishing them two weeks before the final harvesting. Humate spraying is conducted early in the morning on the second day after the next scheduled fertilizing.
It should be mentioned that the increased economic efficiency of the humate application in vegetable farming is connected not only with yield gain and its quality improvement but also with a faster fruit ripening and due to this, vegetables are sold at higher prices. Humate spraying of the vegetating plants can be combined with chemical pesticide spraying.
Potato tubers pre-sowing humate treatment is very important, especially for the households which every year plant their own potato seeds gathered during the previous harvesting. In case of potato seeds there is a phenomenon called “degeneration”, i.e., the loss of many valuable variety properties, sharp yield decrease, immunity decrease, virus and fungus diseases. The seeds have been already “weakened” before sowing. The pre-sowing treatment of potato tubers by the humate work solution is obligatory in this case. It is recommended to apply the work solution (concentration 0.05-0.08%). To prepare the soaking work solution, 80-100 ml of the humate concentrate is diluted in 10 liters of water. The work solution consumption rate is 20-30 liters per 1 ton of tubers. One can conduct potato treatment in piles with the height up to 0.5 meters.
The pre-sowing humate treatment of potato tubers facilitates the yield growth by 10-15%, increases the contents of dry substance and starch in tubers by 5-10% and decreases the level of nitrate nitrogen by 20-30%. At the same time the incidence of soft rots and scabs in tubers decreases.
A significant gain in the potato yield is obtained at the humate solution comprehensive treatment of the planting material and vegetative plants in the stage of seedling emergence (5-7 leaves) and in the booting period. The number of treatment courses should not exceed two times to prevent potato “going to seed”. The work solution concentration intended for vegetative plant treatment is 0.001 – 0.008%. The work solution consumption is 250-300 l per hectare.
Fruit and berry crops and grapes.
It is reasonable to apply humate at grapes and fruit&berry crops growing by means of grapestalk soaking before stalk treatment to develop its root system, soaking rootstock and scion canes before inoculation, soaking fruit&berry transplants before sowing with the further spraying and watering of the shrubs of grapes, small fruit and fruit-bearing trees.
Before sowing grapestalks and transplants are submerged down to 1/3 of the length into a 0.08% humate work solution and held for 24-72 hours. To prepare a soaking work solution, 80-100 ml of the humate concentrate are diluted in 10 liters of water. After sowing the plants should be watered in 7-10 days. This method facilitates better plant rooting and survival. It is recommended to water the grape stalks by the humate work solution (0.005-0.008% concentration) twice after their transplanting in the seed plot every 10-15 days. To prepare the work solution, 100 ml of the concentrate are diluted in 100 liters of water.
It is recommended to conduct grapes spraying by the 0.005-0.008% humate work solution 2-3 times per vegetation: in the booting stage; after blossoming; in the stage of berry ripening. Work solution preparation: Dilute 1-1.2 liters of the humate concentrate in 1,000-1,200 liters of water and treat 1 hectare with the obtained solution. The gardens and the vineyards can use the humate solutions for foliar treatment along with those chemical pesticides which are recommended for this area (except for the Bordeaux mixture and iodine oxychloride). Fruit trees foliar treatment by the humate work solution can be conducted with the tractor sprayers OVT-1, OVS – at the work solution consumption of 1,000 – 1,200 liters per hectare. It is reasonable to conduct the garden treatment 4 times per vegetation: after blossoming; in the stage when the seed bud starts to drop during the period of praefoliation and in the period of fruit growing. Humate spraying of fruit plants in the praefoliation period positively influences the next year yield.
The spraying of fruit trees (apple trees, pear trees) by the humate work solution in the concentration of 0.008%-0.001% four times per season: in early spring; after blossoming; in the period of fruit inception and in the period of ripening. The work solution consumption is 2-3 liters for a young tree and 7-10 liters for a mature tree.
For strawberry humate treatment (2 or 3-year planting) is conducted three times per vegetation: before booting; on the green seed-bud occurrence; after berry pick-up. Fertilizing should be conducted at the second and third years of strawberry growing. Work solution preparation: 100 ml of the concentrate should be diluted in 100 liters of water. The work solution consumption – 1.2 l per 1 m2.
Two-year currant brushes are sprayed by humate in June-July four times with the interval of 7-10 days before berry pick-up by the root.
Vine and flower&ornamental crops.
Humate boosts the root system development, improves germinability, reduces the duration of phenological stages and fruit ripening. For the pre-sowing treatment of vine crops’ seeds one recommends to use the humate work solution with the concentration of 0.08%-0.01%. The duration of seed soaking is 18-20 hours. To make a work solution for soaking, 80-100 ml of the humate concentrate are diluted in 10 liters of water. The spraying by the 0.001-0.008% humate work solution on vegetation should be conducted in the period of vine formation and repeated in 15-20 days. To make a work solution for spraying, 85-100 ml of the concentrate are diluted in 100 liters of water.
The humate work solution can be used to grow the planted out seedlings, stalk soaking, lawn and ornamental crops watering. It facilitates earlier starting of plants, their better survivability, abundant flowering of flower crops, increasing the amount of flower-bearing stems and flower diameter. To soak the stalks of flower and ornamental crops, it is recommended to apply the humate work solution with the concentration of 0.01-0.08%. The exposure duration is 10-48 hours depending on the crops’ variety and age.
For annual flower crops the vegetation treatment should be conducted twice: during booting and blossoming.
The following types of treatment are stipulated for permanent flower crops: Early spring spraying of winter permanent crops by the 0.002-0.005% humate work solution; during the intensive growth period in approximately three weeks after the first one; in the booting period; if necessary, in the blossoming period. It is recommended to conduct autumn fertilization of all permanent crops by the humate work solution in order to increase the plant frost resistance.
The use of 0.005% humate solution for Shasta daisy resulted in the faster plant development (by three weeks) and better developed root system even if compared with the plants exposed to the special growth stimulators – heteroauxins.